Letter 2 ( 9. Jul 1866) - There is a very long description of Montenegro and its struggle against the Turks on page 4.
Morris was the American charge d'affaires to the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Naples) from 4. April 1850 until 25 August 1853. He would have been in Naples when Njegosh was there.
Next week, I will write a letter to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople. I found the address... site:
The Patriarchate does have a ...Library, .... have some old records between 1766 (after Peć) and 1904 (Устав Светога Синода у Књажевини Црној Гори). If any ... exist, they will probably be in Greek.
In the meantime, I'm sending You a few postcards of Montenegro's pavillon at the world exposition in Liege, Belgium (1905). After an absence of 105 years, Montenegro again participated in the 2010 expositon in Shanghai. In the meantime, I'm sendig You a few postcards of Montenegro's pavillon at the world exposition in Liege, Belgium (1905). After an absence of 105 years, Montenegro again participated in the 210 exposition in Shanghai...
All the best from Phoenix!
Mr. Morris to Mr. Seward.
Constantinople, July 9, 1866.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of despatch No. 112.
In a conference of the representatives of the great powers recently held here, it was decided to recommend the Porte to refrain from its contemplated project of a military occupation of the Danubian principalities. This resolution was adopted, as well from a conviction that such an occupation would lead to difficulties among the protecting powers themselves, as from the assurance that it would be resisted by the Roumanians.
The Porte, although it has concentrated an army of 80,000 men in the fortified camps of Shumla and Raustchouk, on the Danubian frontier, for the purpose of invading the principalities, has, in compliance with the suggestion of the great powers, renounced this intention, at least for the present. How long these powers will continue to agree in opinion on this subject it is difficult to surmise, but in all probability no longer than their respective interests require it. Prince Hohenzollern, it is here generally believed, waa proffered and accepted the Roumanian crown at the instigation of France and Prussia, and that, acting as their agent, he will facilitate certain schemes of territorial compensation which it may be necessary to adopt in behalf of Austria in the readjustment of the relations of that power with Prussia and Italy. In the meanwhile he is counselled to perform the full measure of his duties to the suzerain power and to abstain from any infraction of the treaty-defined prerogatives of the Porte. This counsel he will adopt, as it proceeds in the first instance from his confidential friends and patrons, the sovereigns of France, Italy, and Prussia. For the present, apprehensions of war from this ever-renewing source of trouble may be regarded as allayed.
In consequence of the excited state of public feelings in Greece, and the manifestation of hostile dispositions by the Montenegrians, the Porte has lined the Greek frontier with strong detachments of troops, aud has concentrated a force of 75,000 men on the northwestern frontiers. The Greeks cherish the hope of being able, by force of arms, or political complications, to acquire the Turkish provinces of Albania and Thessaly, the majority of the population of which profess the Greek religion and speak the Greek language. Whenever war occurs between the great states of Europe, this ambition develops itself with an intensity that renders it almost impossible for the government to preserve the peace between the two countries. Under Turkish rule these provinces suffer, as all the other provinces of the empire, from the misrule and corruption of the local governors; their resources are but partially developed, and industry and trade are crippled for the want of roads, harbors, and an enlightened public policy. Incorporated in the kingdom of Greece, they would open new fields of enterprise to its active and industrious population, and under Christian influences they would rapidly increase in numbers and wealth. As it is, they bave the appearance of countries desolated by a pestilential scourge. Outside of the towns, in the open country, but few houses are to be seen, insecurity prevails to such an extent that every one goes armed to the teeth, and vast tracts, for want of culture, have returned to a state of nature. The blight of misgovern men t has fallen with withering effect on these fair regions, and they must continue to suffer so long as political policy shall require them to be sacrificed to considerations of international expediency.
In times of general commotion, the Montenegrians also never fail to exhibit a spirit of discontent, and aspirations for independence and territorial extension. The province of Montenegro occupies a singula!' position, surrounded, as it is, by Turkish territory, and separated in front from the sea by a narrow strip of Austrian Dalmatia. Unlike the slaves of Albania, Bosnia, and Herzovinga, the heroic little population of Montenegro have always refused to renounce Christianity for the Mussulman faith. On their mountain ridges and plains, for five centuries, they have successfully resisted the efforts of the Turks to reduce them to a state of absolute subjugation. After various vicissitudes of disasters and success, they still maintain a qualified independence of the Turkish yoke. Even this, light as it is, sits heavily on the hearts of this brave race of mountaineers, and they are constantly seeking to shake it off, either by new sacrifices of blood or by negotiation. Taking advantage of the crisis in European politics, the government of Montenegro has recently sent a deputation to the Porte for the purpose of making the following demands: 1. The evacuation of the small piece of Montenegrian territory, on which stands Novosello, and which has been occupied by a detachment of Turkish troops for the past three years. 2. The demolition of the for.t of Vischotitza and of the block-bouses raised after the last campaign of Omer Pacha. 3. The effective carrying out of article 5 of the convention of Cettigne, which provides for the tenure of land in Turkey by native Montenegrians or an indemnity for such of the latter as have suffered through the non-execution of this provision. 4. The substitution of the present Turkish commissioner, Hafiz Bey, by some other. In case of non-compliance with these demands, hostilities may again be directed against the Porte by the Montenegrians. As they are the representative element of the slavic population of Turkey, the flame of insurrection kindled in their mountains might extend to all the neighboring region.of Turkey inhabited by slaves. Through Austrian aid, they have been furnished with artillery, munitions of war, and such an abundance of arms that the whole population may be said to be armed to the teeth. Should general peace be established, they will, however, hardly attempt a war with Turkey, unless they are stimulated by foreign intrignes.
In Syria there is likewise trouble. The irrepressible Joseph Karam, the Maronite chief, has again taken up arms against Turkish authority. His present movement does not seem to be a formidable one, and unless some very serious mistake is committed by the local government, will soon be suppressed.
From the above representation of the state of affairs, it will be seen that the embarrassments of the Porte are such as to render it very difficult to maintain domestic peace and escape the foreign war. As for perfect internal tranquillity, that seems to be impossible. Provincial misgovernment and foreign intrigues
keep up a constant spirit of discontent in the provinces. Should the war in Europe, which is now in a state of suppression, be revived, I fear Turkey will be disturbed either by civil war in European Turkey, or by questions leading to foreign war/ The necessity, under present circumstances, of keeping her forces ©n the war-footing, adds grievous burdens to an already over-taxed and impoverished country, and to a treasury depleted almost to exhaustion. Altogether, the condition of the empire is one calculated to awaken the keenest solicitude among all who believe that its integrity and independenee are essential to the well-being of the many races of antagonistical faiths who live under the government of the Sultan, as well as on the part of those who apprehend that the fall of the Ottoman empiie will be the prelude to one of the greatest and most disastrous war in European history.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E. JOY MORRIS.
Hon. William H. Seward,
Secretray of State, Washington, D. C.
...da ne bude "pomnogo" za ovaj put, MI javljanja sa crnogorske zemlje, aber Vice Presidenta Mr. Joe Biden ovaj put ću zadržati za sebe, a "popunu" rečenog, a napisanog, nastaviću sa bezprofitnog lobiranja američkih čeljadi koji ne po prvi put, pokazuju da nije dovoljno reći i (ili) izigravati ministra Kulture Crne Gore sa Šekspirom i bez Šekspira; ministra Turizma po kome sve "cvjeta" na crnogorskom moru i "brdima" ;o akademijama (liše) pojedinih Akademika ,..itd.itd.itd....
Promišljajući kako da završim ovo MI javljanje s' crnogorske zemlje, završio bih sa još jednom EKSKLUZIVOM, Poštovanog Grega Ericksona koji prezentova: Montenegro's pavillon at the world exposition in Liege , Belgium (1905.), i koji u svome javljanju (LOBIRANJU), nastavi: 1905.godine, u Liježu (Liege), u čast proslave sedamdeset pet godina Belgijske nezavisnosti, održana je Expo izložba (L'Exposition universelle et internationale de Liége), i po prvi put država Crna Gora, je učestovala - što je izazvalo posebno uvažavanje domaćina i interesovanje tamošnje javnosti. Crna Gora je, kao samostalni izlagač, izlagala je u posebnom paviljonu, koji se nije odlikovao ogromnim razmjerama i veličinom, no ipak, kako pisaše pomnogi belgijski listovi i žurnali, crnogorski paviljon je odisao elegantnošću i ukusom.
Iako u to vrijeme izuzetno siromašna, Crna Gora je izdvojila sredstva za ovu izložbu jer je prepoznala značaj svog učešća na EXPO-u, i prezentacijom kulturnog naslijeđa i blaga.
Država Crna Gora i njena čeljad koja su bila dijo MISIJE (LOBIRANJA) toga vremena je pokušavala da doprinese stvaranju drugačijeg imidža o svom kulturnom identitetu, koji će zainteresovati evropsku i svjetsku javnost.
U svom skromnom predstavljanju, u paviljonu su izložena narodna crnogorska odijela i bogate kolekcije raznog oružja. Takođe, odštampan je i određen broj razglednica sa motivima izložbenog eksterijera crnogorskog paviljona. Na ovoj izožbi Crna Gora je osvojila Gran pri nagradu za duhan koji je izložio Monopol duhan iz Podgorice..
P.S. čitajući-prelistavajući - MEĐUNARODNO JAVNO PRAVO - Prof. Luj Le Fir, zapazih u ovoj kapitalnoj ediciji: LOBIRANJE JE I PATRIJOTIZAM...
Fakat da pomnogi koji su danas na budžetu naroda crnogorskog, valjalo bi da znaju da nije za "sve" pa čak i LOBIRANJE - uvijek potrebna "zobnica" (tamo njima), jer valja se znati: LJUBAV BRZO OHLADNI AKO JE SAMO JEDNA STRANA DRŽI
Zoran B. Zeković
President Foundation for Preservation and Development of Cultural Heritage of Montenegro
"East River - Montenegro" & UNIKAT - Cetinje